Introduction to Mass Transfer

Mass Transfer Introduction The term mass transfer is used to denote the transference of a component in a mixture
from a region where its concentration is high to a region where the concentration is lower.
Mass transfer process can take place in a gas or vapour or in a liquid, and it can result
from the random velocities of the molecules (molecular diffusion) or from the circulating
or eddy currents present in a turbulent fluid (eddy diffusion).
In processing, it is frequently necessary to separate a mixture into its components and,
in a physical process, differences in a particular property are exploited as the basis for
the separation process. Thus, fractional distillation depends on differences in volatility,
gas absorption on differences in solubility of the gases in a selective absorbent and,
similarly, liquid- liquid extraction is based on on the selectivity of an immiscible liquid
solvent for one of the constituents. The rate at which the process takes place is dependent
both on the driving …

Market Evaluation-Precautions before Launching your Product in Market

Market Evaluation:- During the development of the chemical industry, experts have been trained, and it is necessary to call upon them for market Evaluation when a new product is under appraisal.

Purity and Uniformity of Product:- There is a great vagueness in the chemical industry concerning the meaning of terms used to describe purity. Terms such as technical, purified, analytical reagent, reagent grade, spectroscopic purity, etc, convey the Sense of the degree of purity, but the reagent grade of one chemical may be less pure than the technical grade of another. One part in 10 million of boron is significant in the nuclear field; 50% purity may be totally adequate for a pharmaceutical. Research in the laboratory, checked by pilot plant operations, should be directed to obtain optimum conditions to ensure Uniformity of Product (which is frequently as important as purity) and process performance and, if possible, to reduce by products, since sales costs of the latter may be excessive. I…

Chemical process Economics-Why Economics matter in Chemical processing.

Chemical process Economics :- Engineers are distinguished from scientists by their consciousness of costs and profits.Every engineering decision involved cost consideration. Engineers must continue to keep abreast of Economic changes that may affect their products.The primary objective of the engineers endeavors should be to deliver safely the best product or the most efficient service at the lowest cost to the employer and the consuming public.

Competing process:-
  Since change is an outstanding characteristic of the chemical procedures, potential alteration of any process is of importance not only when the plant is first designed, but continuously. One of the functions of a research and devolpment (R&D) division is to keep abreast of progress and to make available knowledge of improvements or even fundamental changes leading to the making of any given product in which the organization is interested. This R&D component must keep informed regarding devolpmemts in other compani…